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AMA Citation Format: Every Type Explained

AMA citation format
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AMA citation style is demanded among medical and scientific researchers. As they investigate and analyze much relevant information on their subject area, they need to refer to it somehow. No matter what kind of medical research topic an author is working on! It can be an article to journals, dissertations, or abstracts. The AMA paper format is required to be used for reference.

How to cite in AMA format? What formulas are used to provide correct reference? How to refer to a book, online sources, presentations? Are you confused about what to start with? You landed at the right place and on time. Let us show and explain basic principles used in AMA with examples accompanied.  

AMA Format: Citation

Let's interpret AMA style citation before starting with exact rules and samples. So, what is AMA citation? It is reference system used by academic authors to cite the contribution of other researchers. It enables us to put an accurate reference to other works of other authors in two ways. First, it is necessary to give a full description of an entry in a AMA reference page. Second, an author should cite the same reference within work that is called an AMA in text citation. Thus, AMA involves specific entry elements to include in both citing manners.

This citation style was created by the American Medical Association. It focuses specifically on their publications. However, it is widely used in different universities and publications with some variations in them.  

AMA: Book Citation

The first source an author deals with is book, and it’s necessary to know how to cite a book in AMA. This kind of literature can be used differently by researchers. They can cite only one chapter from chosen book that reveals the key notions. However, complete book with various theories and concepts can also be cited. The latter should be referred to due to AMA citation for book. Sometimes, they can cite someone’s dissertation as recent proven research. In addition, online books are available, and they also should be cited. Whatever useful information an author can find, a source it was taken from needs to be cited due to AMA style.

Accordingly, reference entry in a book citing contains such compulsory elements in a particular order:  

  1. Author(s) Name (Last Name First Initial|Middle Initial);
  2. Book’s Title: Book’s Subtitle;
  3. Edition Number (indicate the last edition);
  4. Publication Place: Publisher; Publication Year.

Besides, some entry elements are given in an appropriate formatting manner and used with particular punctuation. For example, the 2nd position in the formula is italicized and separated by colons. After Publication Date, double colons are given as it discloses further information about Publisher and Year. Semicolons are used after Publisher. Thus, all element positions are joined with periods.

Take a look at this example:  


Pay attention that there is no comma between Last Name and Initials when one author is identified.

More detailed information about citing other sources is given below.  If you lack time to read on, simply shop for our nursing paper writing service and focus on more important things tonight.

AMA Textbook Citation

Once an author finds a textbook helpful for work, it makes sense to know how to cite a textbook AMA. The same general citation formula is used for citing a textbook. Keep in mind that they often are revised or republished. So, make sure you cite the last version of this source. Thus, the formula of textbook citation is as follows:

  1. Author(s) Name;
  2. Book’s Title;
  3. Edition Number (give the second edition or above);
  4. Publication Place: Publisher; Copywrite Year.

Consider the following example:

AMA Book Chapter Citation

Implementing information from a chapter, one should utilize AMA citation book chapter. Such additional elements are used as Chapter’s Author(s), Chapter Title, Editor’s Name (if available), and Chapter’s Pages. Thus, the general format of an entry reference is next:

  1. Chapter’s Author(s);
  2. Chapter Title;
  3. In: Editor’s Name (if available), eds.;
  4. Author(s) Name;
  5. Book’s Title;
  6. Edition Number;
  7. Publication Place: Publisher; Year: Pages.

Pages from a chapter are mentioned after Publication Year and separated with colons.

The following example serves as a perfect illustration:  

Citation AMA: Edited Book

In AMA citation edited book the equal formula for citing a book is applied. The only difference is the 1st position where Editor Name is given instead of Author. Check the respective formula:

  1. Editor(s) Name (Last Name First Initial|Middle Initial), ed.;
  2. Book’s Title: Book’s Subtitle;
  3. Edition Number (indicate the last edition);
  4. Publication Place: Publisher; Year.

Take a look at this example:


After mentioning an editor, “ed.” is given after. When there is more than one editor, then all editors should be listed with “eds.” in the end.

Consider the following example:  

AMA Citation: Online Book

AMA citation ebook involves the same format as for book reference. As it is digital information, URL should be given and Accessed Date mentioned at the end of reference. When referring to an online book, stick to the following formula:

  1. Author(s) Name (Last Name First Initial|Middle Initial), ed.;
  2. Book’s Title: Book’s Subtitle;
  3. Edition Number (indicate the last edition);
  4. Publication Place: Publisher; Year;
  5. URL;
  6. Accessed Date (Month-Day-Year).

The following example serves as a perfect illustration:

AMA Citation: Multiple Authors

Plenty of books can contain several authors. When they count more than 6, AMA citation more than 6 authors comes to help.

If the reference has up to 6 authors, commas are used to separate each name.

Take a look at this example:  


When there are more than 6 authors, the first three should be listed and followed by “et al.”.

Consider the following example:  

AMA Citation: Dissertation

New concepts and proven theories are frequently searched in dissertations. Consequently, dissertation AMA citations are implemented to cite them. The formula structure is much similar to the one used for citing a book. Only University Name and Dissertation Title are added. This information is typically available online. That's why URL and Accessed Date are also to be input.

The formula of dissertation citation is next:  

  1. Author(s) Name (Last Name First Initial|Middle Initial), ed.;
  2. Dissertation Title [Dissertation];
  3. University Name;
  4. Copywrite Year;
  5. Accessed Date;
  6. URL (no period used in the end).

Take a look at this example:

AMA Citation: Journal

Journal is a specialized publication containing various fruitful articles that can be used in research papers cited due to AMA journal citation. Whether found in a public library or online journal, authors use practically the same formula to cite an article on a specific theme. For more detailed information about citing a journal article, look below.

AMA Citation: Journal Article

Referring to an article from a printed journal, one should stick to AMA article citation rules. It is quite similar to book chapter citation. Although, there are some additional elements and replacement. For instance, instead of Book Title, Journal Abbreviation is mentioned. Additional elements are Volume, Issue, and Pages of an article. Accordingly, the formula looks like this:

  1. Author(s);
  2. Article Title: Subtitle;
  3. Journal Abbreviation;
  4. Year;
  5. Volume (Issue);
  6. Article Pages.

Keep in mind to follow certain format and punctuation in some elements. Journal Abbreviation is italicized. Semicolons are used after Year, colons — after Volume (Issue). Issue is given in parentheses. Article pages are meant as a range of pages. Look at an example below.

The following example serves as a perfect illustration:  

AMA Citation: Online Article

AMA citation for online journal citation doesn’t differ much from the description mentioned above. Only DOI or URL are inserted as electronic addresses they are taken from. Therefore, the general format with DOI (digital object identifier) element is as follows:

  1. Author(s);
  2. Article Title: Subtitle;
  3. Journal Abbreviation;
  4. Year;
  5. Volume (Issue);
  6. Article Pages;
  7. DOI.

Consider the following example:


The citing formula of an online article with URL element is next:

  1. Author(s);
  2. Article Title: Subtitle;
  3. Journal Abbreviation;
  4. Year;
  5. Volume (Issue);
  6. Article Pages;
  7. Accessed Date;
  8. URL.

Take a look at this example:

Citing a Website: AMA

Many investigations made by known organizations on medicine and health care are available online, so AMA citation website style is applied then. Accordingly, the name of the organization mentioned on its website is to be used instead of Author Name when no author is identified.

This kind of information can be updated. So, such entry elements like Published, Updated, and Accessed Dates should be given if available. The AMA reference of a website is as follows:  

  1. Author(s) (if not identified, put Organization Name);
  2. Item Title (or Organization Name responsible for the site);
  3. Website Title;
  4. URL;
  5. Published Date (if available);
  6. Updated Date (if available);
  7. Accessed Date.

Consider the following example:

AMA Powerpoint Citation

PowerPoint is considered a visual tool to present key points of a message and should be presented in AMA citation powerpoint style. It is convenient for lecturers or representatives to share significant concepts with a target audience in the form of a presentation. In addition, some relevant powerpoints are available online at the websites of a university or other organizations. So, for detailed information on how to cite a presentation, take a look below. 

AMA: Presentation Citation

AMA citation for powerpoint presentation involves other entry elements different for referring to a particular article. Of course, some distinctions are implemented because a presentation has another shape. Such elements as Location, Date, and Place are compulsory to mention.

The formula of presentation citation is as follows:  

  1. Author Name;
  2. Presentation Title;
  3. Paper/ Poster/Lecture presented at: Place; Date; Location.

The following example serves as a perfect illustration:


Whether it is a poster, paper, or lecture, it should be inserted in an entry before “presented at”.

AMA: Lecture Citation

When it comes to personal presentation, AMA citation lecture is provided when a lecturer permits you to use it in your reference. The formula in citing a lecture is like the one mentioned above and contains:

  1. Presenter’s Name;
  2. Presentation Title;
  3. Description of presentation context;
  4. Date;
  5. City;
  6. State (Province or Country).

Consider the following example:

AMA: Image Citation

Pictures are helpful visual tools to add to research work, and an appropriate AMA picture citation should be provided. There is a difference in images used for reference: whether printed image or online. In the first case, an entry reference includes details about a journal or book it was taken from. A responding formula is as follows:

  1. Author(s) Name;
  2. Title of specific item cited;
  3. Journal Abbreviation;
  4. Year;
  5. Volume (Issue);
  6. Article Pages.

Take a look at this example:


When citing an online image, then it is presented as a web object with URL added:

  1. Author(s) Name;
  2. Title of specific item cited;
  3. Website Title;
  4. URL;
  5. Published Date (if available);
  6. Updated Date (if available);
  7. Accessed Date.

The following example serves as a perfect illustration:

AMA: Figure Citation

Figures are used to present some illustrations or graphs in works, and figure citation in AMA is quite simple. They should have a title like a Figure 1, Figure 2, etc. When referring to a figure in the text and there is more than one, it is necessary to number them in order. Also, it should be positioned to its first mention as close as possible. Citing a figure includes its corresponding number.

Consider the following example:  

AMA Citation: Video

Writing a research paper, any source of information, even a video program, can help much, and AMA program citation shows how to include it. The reference format of a video program contains such elements as:

  1. Author or host of program (if no author, use Publisher Name);
  2. Title [Format];
  3. City;
  4. State (or Country);
  5. Publisher;
  6. Year.

Take a look at this example:

AMA: Youtube Citation

Many educational and medically-based videos are found on a Youtube channel and should be cited according to AMA citation Youtube video. For sure, there is a creator of a video who uploaded it on the platform and made it accessible to others. But before using it as a reference, permission from a creator is crucial.

Therefore, Youtube citation consists of:  

  1. Creator(s);
  2. Video Title [Video]. Youtube;
  3. URL;
  4. Publication Date;
  5. Accessed Date.

Consider the following example:

AMA: Movie Citation

Documentary movies are often used in a citation on specific topics, and rules of AMA citation for movie are implemented. Instead of Creator, it is mentioned Director and some additionals about this type of video. Thus, the general formula for movie reference is as follows:

  1. Director;
  2. Movie Title & Subtitle;
  3. [Movie Format];
  4. Publication Place;
  5. Publisher;
  6. Year.

The following example serves as a perfect illustration:

AMA: Programs

Computer literacy is highly required in our modern world, especially in medicine, and AMA program citation style is necessary to include. In addition, high-tech products allow the implementation of various data and software in research work. Consequently, these data should be included in a reference list. How to present it correctly? Look for detailed information below. Also, you can consider ordering custom nursing papers to save time and, truth be told, a lot of nerves writing AMA homework tasks.

AMA: Software

If the software is purchased, it should take place in citation and use AMA formatting software. In cases that are available for free, there is no need to cite them. So, due to the first case, the citing formula looks like this:

  1. Software Title [Compute Software];
  2. Version;
  3. Location;
  4. Producer;
  5. Year.

Take a look at this example:

AMA: Database

Updated articles and the latest news are often stored in digital databases, and an author should provide AMA database citation in paperwork. Thus, appropriate information is presented as a web object and incorporates such entry elements:

  1. Database Author(s);
  2. Database Title;
  3. Publication Place: Publisher; Year;
  4. URL;
  5. Updated [Date of update];
  6. Accessed [Date of access].

Consider the following example:

AMA Citation: Personal Communication

When using AMA citation for a personal communication, it means referring to e-mail, interviews, personal reports or e-mail listserv messages. This type of reference is typically used only in the text but not in reference list. Therefore, it makes this source of information different from others.

This citation has some peculiarities to consider. It is given in parentheses and includes:  

  • Speaker’s Name;
  • Speaker’s Academic Degree(s);
  • Communication Type;
  • Message Date;
  • URL (for online message).

If it’s an online email, it’s important to mention it as well as the relevance and authority of the citation. A respective example is given below.

The following example serves as a perfect illustration:  

AMA Citation: Interview

An interview is also considered a type of personal communication to include in paperwork, which is provided through AMA citation interview. Like e-mail, it takes a parenthetical form in an in-text reference with the same entry elements used in citing e-mail.

Take a look at this example:  

AMA Citation: Government Report

Relevant information and concepts are available through various government reports, and one should utilize AMA report citation format. They are normally found in the bulletin, data of which is included in citation. The general formula for report is next:

  1. Author(s);
  2. Bulletin Title;
  3. Publication Place: Publisher; Year;

Consider the following example:

AMA: Quote Citation

A research paper also might require an accurate application of author’s quotes in it. Thus, AMA citation direct quote is demanded in this case. This information is taken from an original text. So, it is given directly in the body of the text in quotation marks. And superscript is used after it. Here is an example how it looks like.

The following example serves as a perfect illustration:  

Final Thoughts on Citing in AMA Format

AMA format citation provides a clear and strict understanding of presenting someone’s opinions and research outcomes in work. All information given above is relevant and helpful for academic authors in preparing a reference list. First, it is useful for them to cite an appropriate source in a body of work.

When citing personal information that is not publicly available, one should remember about Copywrite. In this case, it is necessary to obtain an author’s permission before referring to their personal messages. Keep in mind to use reference to every source, whether national or international. This will ensure that you keep fair academic writing. Avoid plagiarism in any case. Your work should be unique and full of relevant concepts and ideas correctly presented. Make your writing experience more accurate with our detailed outline about AMA citation style. You won’t regret it if you choose our community to assist you in your research work.  

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Article posted on:May 5, 2022
Article updated on:Jun 16, 2023

Comments

Leave your comment here:
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Linda
6/25/2022 9:48 AM
Hi. How to cite personal communication interviews in text with multiple speakers in AMA style?
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StudyCrumb
6/25/2022 11:47 AM
Hi Linda,

Basically, you cite interview in text with multiple authors in AMA style the same way you do for one author, but just add the last name with the initial of another speaker. In the example it will look like this: (Smith J, Brooks M, MD, personal communication, April 22, 2021).
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Linda
6/25/2022 11:56 AM
Thanks for your answer!
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Amanda
7/7/2022 8:27 AM
Hi there! I have to use AMA citation style in my paper and I need to cite an email I received personally. I was just wondering if I should cite an email communication in a reference list. If yes, how do I do that?
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StudyCrumb
7/7/2022 9:00 AM
Hi Amanda,

When it comes to personal communication like email, you should cite it only in the text and never in the reference list. The in-text reference should be in parentheses and include the name, affiliation, and highest academic degree(s) of the person who sent the message and the date the message was sent. The example will look like this: (John Smith, MD, e-mail communication, October 2020).