By now you probably have conducted your research and all that’s left is to share your findings in APA Results section. American Psychological Association has established multiple rules for designing your research outcomes. Chances are that you have numerous questions regarding this part of a paper, but only a limited time to find any sound answers. That’s why we have prepared this quick guide. Keep reading and find out what goes in the Result section and how to properly format it in APA writing style.
APA Results Section: Basics
APA Results section is a part of a research paper where scientists share their findings. After all, it is impossible to tell otherwise about the work’s significance. There is no need to elaborate on your research topic. Rather it just focuses on statistics and numerical data.
APA Results section should provide data that answers your research question. Here’s what you should include in this part of a paper:
- Number of participants
- Descriptive statistical data
- Inferential statistical data
- Missing details
- Side effects
- Written reports.
You should maintain a consistent structure and offer an easy-to-follow flow of ideas. It’s usually written using the past tense. You must present the outcomes of a study that has already been finished.
How to Write Results Section: APA
When designing an APA format Results section, you should work out each block step by step. Let us walk you through each stage of the writing process:
- Preliminary discussion
- Analysis of obtained data
- Presenting your research findings.
Note that these details should only be summarized. Keep interpretations for your Discussion section.
Preliminary Discussion in Your APA Results Section
APA Results section of a research paper should start with a brief reminder. Briefly restate your main goal and hypotheses that you wanted to test. (We have the whole blog on how to write a hypothesis.) Then, you should mention a number of participants, excluded data (if there is any) and adverse effects.
Report how many people participated in your research. A number of participants may vary depending on each stage of your study. This being said, you should explain the reasons for attrition to ensure internal validity.
Your research depends much on how complete your data is. But sometimes, you might lack some necessary equipment or have things going the way you don’t expect. That’s why you should inform your readers about any missing data and reasons behind this. If it’s a clinical research, you should also report any side effects that have happened.
Pay extra attention to reporting style, as you must convince readers that your research was conducted according to set conditions. Without this, it won’t be possible to achieve a desired result.
Wonder how to cite a report APA? We have a special blog that contains all rules with every detail.
APA Results Section: Summarize Your Data Analysis
Writing the APA results section relies on preparing an explanation of your outcomes. Dry statistics isn’t your best option. Instead, you should make a descriptive analysis of data that you have collected. Introduce descriptive statistics for each type of analysis – preliminary, secondary and subgroup one.
Make sure you properly report descriptive statistics in your APA Results section. The means of reporting may vary depending on the nature of your data and conditions.
Means of reporting data
Means and standard deviations
Besides, you should also include such elements:
- Sample sizes
- Measures of central tendency
- Measures of variability (for point estimate).
Provide verified information from trusted sources. Losing your readers’ trust is easy. APA recommends using citations in cases when rare statistics is integrated. However, you shouldn’t bother citing common knowledge.
Presenting Outcomes in Your APA Results Section
To introduce outcomes in your APA results section, report hypothesis tests. Then, mention if it was confirmed by presenting numbers. Make sure you specify such information:
- Test statistic
- Degree of freedom
- Your p-value
- Magnitude and direction.
Readers don’t have to guess what details you have omitted and should be able to draw conclusions based on real data. Besides, you should estimate effect sizes and provide information on confidence intervals.
There is one good way to organize your statistical results – moving from the most important to the least important. First, you should focus on the primary questions and then address secondary research questions until you cover subgroups. Follow this structure and provide information in stages.
Your work formatting is one of the most important steps to success. So, follow American Psychological statistics to cope with numbers.
APA Results Section: How to Format
After having decided on the format of an APA results section, you should consider the general requirements. The manual contains information about such details:
- Font: Times New Roman.
- Size: 12 pt. font size.
- Spacing: Double-spaced.
- Margins: 1 inch on all sides.
You might also want to integrate visual elements to enhance your research. For example, you can use figures, graphs, charts or tables to present numerical data. According to APA 7th edition, you should create an appendix and make respective references. Number figures and graphs in the order they appear in your APA results section.
APA Results Section: Writing Tips
Before writing the APA results section, make sure that the data is meaningful and can potentially contribute to further research. Academic writing is peculiar as the presentation of information should be carried out according to all rules and requirements. However, this is not the end.
A few tips will help to write a worthwhile Results section. Consider the following:
- Tense All outcomes of a study must be described in the past tense, because the objective is to describe the obtained results.
- Brevity Any deviation from a topic is unacceptable, nor the provision of useless information is. Staying on point and being concise is the right decision.
- Objectivity Present an unbiased synopsis of outcomes, as this will allow you to present information in a convenient and useful format. Readers will be grateful.
Preparing a paper takes a lot of effort and this is a good reason to take advantage of the advice from academic professionals.
Example of APA Results Section
Sometimes, all you need to get started is an APA results section example. A decent sample is easy to find here. Pay attention to the key points and keep them in mind as you write. Moreover, you can use this template to format this paper’s part with APA requirements in mind.
APA Results Section: Final Thoughts
The APA results section requires a special attention from students. Hypothesis and presentation of evidence are the basis for project development. Reporting your main findings in this section will help you prove your hypothesis and enhance your stuy.
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Frequently Asked Questions About APA Results Section
1. How many words should an APA Results section contain?
An APA results section is presented in a concise style, so the number of words is limited. It shouldn’t exceed 1000 words, which is 2-3 pages of double spaced text. Be specific and don’t deviate from your main point.
2. What’s the difference between APA Results section and APA Discussion section?
APA results section presents the outcomes of research. Here, you should focus on the results, statistical and other data as proof of your hypothesis. A Discussion section, in turn, involves an analysis of findings. In this part of your study, you should evaluate hypotheses and interpret your results.
3. When should I use tables or figures to present numbers in my APA results section?
APA results section includes not only textual information about your research outcomes, but also other ways of presenting information. Create tables, figures and archives to present your findings. Here are several rules you should keep in mind before using visual elements:
- Use sentences to talk about numbers up to 3 components;
- As for converting numbers greater than 20, use a table;
- Charts are worth saving for when there are more than 20 figures.
4. What tense should I use in my results section?
Writing the Results section requires another rule one must follow. Everything should be written in past tense. This way, you will indicate that your research project is complete and that all presented findings are obtained empirically.